Historical Sources: G. Vitolo, "Medioevo", Milano-Firenze, Sansoni, 2004. G. Tabacco, "Egemonie sociali e strutture del potere nel medioevo italiano", Torino, Einaudi, 2000. R. Mantran, "L'espansione musulmana dal VII all'XI secolo", Milano, Mursia, 1978. M. Lombard, "Splendore e apogeo dell'Islam (VIII-XI secolo)", Milano, Rizzoli, 1991. B. Badie, "I due stati. Società e potere in Islam e Occidente", Genova, Marietti, 1991. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., 1994-2003. Genetic and Anthropological Sources: 1) Haplogroup E3b and its subclades in Italy 1a. Here Cruciani et al. (2004), Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa: www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov Open the TABLE 1: Y-Chromosome Haplogroup E Percent Frequencies in the Populations Studied. 1b. Cruciani et al. (2007) calculate the contribution of northern African lineages to the entire male gene pool of continental Italy, and they show how its trifling, especially in continental Southern Italy --_see the PART 3 of this work on The Real Truth About The Italians: 2) Haplogroup J2 in Italy Here Onofri et al. (2008), Y chromosome J2 subtyping in an Italian sample: Population and forensic implications: download.journals.elsevierhealth.com If you cant open the file, go to this link: www.fsigeneticssup.com This recent study demonstrates the lineage frequencies of haplogroup J2 in southern Italy and in northern Italy are ...

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